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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 Here are some tips to increase XWiki's performance.
6
7 = Clustering =
8
9 If you need high availability or if the load on your XWiki instance is too high you can [[configure XWiki in a cluster>>Documentation.AdminGuide.Clustering.WebHome]] to spread the load.
10
11 = Standalone Solr =
12
13 By default XWiki use an embedded instance of Solr for ease of use, but if you struggle with very slow searches, you should try a external Solr instance.
14 You can use ##debug=true## in the URL of the search to see how much time is spent inside Solr to verify if Solr is taking a long time, or the issue is somewhere else, for example the XWiki UI.
15
16 See [[Performance Guide in Solr module documentation>>extensions:Extension.Solr Search API#HPerformances]].
17
18 = Slow random number generation on UNIX =
19
20 The library used for random number generation in Oracle's JVM relies on ##/dev/random## by default for UNIX platforms.
21
22 Although ##/dev/random## is more secure, it's possible to use ##/dev/urandom## if the default JVM configuration instead.
23
24 To determine if your operating system exhibits this behavior, try displaying a portion of the file from a shell prompt:
25
26 {{code language="bash"}}
27 head -n 1 /dev/random
28 {{/code}}
29
30 If the command returns immediately, you can use ##/dev/random## as the default generator for Oracle's JVM. If the command does not return immediately, use on of the following solutions to use ##/dev/urandom##:
31
32 == JVM setup ==
33
34 1. Open the ##$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/java.security## file in a text editor.
35 1. Change the line:
36 {{code language="properties"}} securerandom.source=file:/dev/random{{/code}}
37 to read:
38 {{code language="properties"}} securerandom.source=file:/dev/urandom{{/code}}
39 1. Save your change and exit the text editor.
40
41 == Command line parameter ==
42
43 The same effect can be obtained using ##-Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom## in the Java command line (usually in the application server configuration).
44
45 = Gzip compression and caching of static pages =
46
47 HTTP compression is a capability that can be built into web servers and web clients to improve transfer speed and bandwidth utilization. HTTP data is compressed before it is sent from the server: compliant browsers will announce what methods are supported to the server before downloading the correct format; browsers that do not support compliant compression method will download uncompressed data.
48
49 Many application servers (Tomcat, etc.) and HTTP proxies (Apache HTTPd, Nginx, etc.) support it.
50
51 == In Apache HTTP Server ==
52
53 The recommended solution is to set up an Apache Web Server in front of your servlet container and install/configure the following modules:
54
55 * [[mod-deflate>>http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/mod/mod_deflate.html]]
56 * [[mod-expires>>http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/mod/mod_expires.html]]
57 * [[mod-proxy-ajp>>http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_proxy_ajp.html]] (note that this depends on [[mod-proxy>>http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_proxy.html]] that you also need to install)
58
59 Modify your Apache configuration file to load the different modules:
60
61 {{code language="none"}}
62 LoadModule expires_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_expires.so
63 LoadModule deflate_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_deflate.so
64 LoadModule proxy_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_proxy.so
65 # Depends: proxy
66 LoadModule proxy_ajp_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_proxy_ajp.so
67 {{/code}}
68
69 //Alternatively you can run the following commands as root (sudo)//
70
71 {{code language="bash"}}
72 a2enmod deflate
73 a2enmod proxy_ajp
74 a2enmod expires
75 {{/code}}
76
77 and configure your different modules as described below:
78
79 === Mod Deflate Configuration ===
80
81 {{code language="none"}}
82 vwwwpro-1:~# cat /etc/apache2/conf.d/deflate
83 <Location />
84 # Insert filter
85 SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
86
87 # Netscape 4.x has some problems...
88 BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html
89
90 # Netscape 4.06-4.08 have some more problems
91 BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4.0[678] no-gzip
92
93 # MSIE masquerades as Netscape, but it is fine
94 # BrowserMatch bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html
95
96 # NOTE: Due to a bug in mod_setenvif up to Apache 2.0.48
97 # the above regex won't work. You can use the following
98 # workaround to get the desired effect:
99 BrowserMatch bMSI[E] !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html
100
101 # Don't compress images
102 SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI .(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$ no-gzip dont-vary
103
104 # Make sure proxies don't deliver the wrong content
105 #Header append Vary User-Agent env=!dont-vary
106 </Location>
107 {{/code}}
108
109 //On debian apache2 the config file for deflate is located under /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/deflate.conf//
110
111 === Mod Expire Configuration ===
112
113 {{code language="none"}}
114 vwwwpro-1:~# cat /etc/apache2/conf.d/expires
115 <Location /xwiki/skins/>
116 ExpiresActive on
117 ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 day"
118 </Location>
119
120 <Location /xwiki/bin/skin/>
121 ExpiresActive on
122 ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 day"
123 </Location>
124 {{/code}}
125
126 === Mod Proxy AJP Configuration ===
127
128 {{code language="none"}}
129 ProxyRequests Off
130 <Proxy *>
131 Order deny,allow
132 Allow from all
133 </Proxy>
134 ProxyPreserveHost On
135 ProxyPass /xwiki ajp://192.168.1.181:8009/xwiki
136 {{/code}}
137
138 where ##ajp:~/~/192.168.1.181:8009/xwiki## is the internal address of your Servlet container where XWiki is running.
139
140 If you use Tomcat(7) you need to enable the ajp connector in the /etc/tomcat7/server.xml. Comment out the following line with adding {{code}}<!-- -->{{/code}}. //Maybe give a comment why you did it.//
141
142 {{code}}
143 <!-- disable to use ajp connector instead
144 <Connector port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
145 connectionTimeout="20000"
146 URIEncoding="UTF-8"
147 redirectPort="8443" />
148 -->
149 {{/code}}
150
151 Uncomment the following line by removing the {{code}}<!-- -->{{/code}} and add {{code}}URIEncoding="UTF-8"{{/code}} to it.Maybe give a comment too.
152
153 {{code}}
154 <!-- Activate ajp connector for apache proxy_ajp -->
155 <Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" URIEncoding="UTF-8"/>
156 {{/code}}
157
158 = Memory =
159
160 You need to configure your Servlet container so that XWiki has enough memory. You'll need to tune the value to your need. You should check the logs and see if there are any "out of memory" errors. Here are some good default values:
161
162 * For Java 8 (i.e. XWiki >= 8.1). Notice that there's no permgen anymore in Java 8:
163 ** Small and medium installs: A minimum of 1024MB (##-Xmx1024m)##
164 ** Large installs: 2048MB or beyond (##-Xmx2048m).##
165 * For Java 7 (i.e. XWiki < 8.1)
166 ** Small installs: A minimum of 512MB of heap memory and 196MB of permGen (##-Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=196m##)
167 ** Medium installs: 1024MB for the heap and 196MB of permGen (##-Xmx1024m -XX:MaxPermSize=196m##)
168 ** Large installs: 2048MB (or beyond) for the heap and 196MB of permGen (##-Xmx2048m -XX:MaxPermSize=196m##).
169
170 {{info}}
171 You should not increase the memory beyond what you need because increasing it means that there's more Objects in memory at any time and the automatic JVM Garbage Collector has to work harder to clean itself, which can results in performance degradation in XWiki (since a full GC will pause the application for a longer time).
172 {{/info}}
173
174 {{warning}}
175 Note that storing attachments with the default (in database) storage mechanism is very memory intensive. See the [[administrators guide to attachments>>Documentation.AdminGuide.Attachments]] for more information about memory cost and the alternative filesystem based attachment store.
176
177 Also note that uploading a lot of pages can trigger out of memory (OOM) errors due to scheduled watchlist jobs. For example uploading 1 million pages will trigger OOM errors even when the JVM is configured to run with 2GB of heap space. For such kind of load we recommend to disable (unschedule) the Watchlist jobs (in ##/xwiki/bin/view/Scheduler/##) before uploading the pages. To track the progress on this issue, please see [[XWIKI-10594>>https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-10594]].
178 {{/warning}}
179
180 {{warning}}
181 If you use HSQLDB as the wiki database, be aware that the full content of the database is stored in memory and thus the memory requirements are higher. See [[HSQLDB installation page>>Documentation.AdminGuide.Installation.InstallationWAR.InstallationHSQL.WebHome]] for more details.
182 {{/warning}}
183
184 For your information here are the values used for the xwiki.org site:
185
186 {{code}}
187 CATALINA_OPTS="-server -Xms800m -Xmx1600m -Dfile.encoding=utf-8 -Djava.awt.headless=true -XX:+UseParallelGC -XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=100"
188 {{/code}}
189
190 = Sizing =
191
192 To give you an idea about what you need to run XWiki on, [[XWiki SAS>>https://xwiki.com]] has the following configuration for its cloud instances:
193
194 * 2GB of RAM (See [[XWiki memory needs>>#HMemory]]),
195 * 2 cores(((
196 {{code language="none"}}
197 AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 6386 SE
198 cpu MHz : 2800.000
199 cache size : 2048 KB
200 {{/code}}
201 )))
202 * 16GB disk size by default
203
204 = Database Indexes =
205
206 Make sure you've set [[Database indexes>>Documentation.AdminGuide.Performances.Database Administration.WebHome]]. This is especially important when you start having lots of documents.
207
208 = Large number of users =
209
210 When you have large number of users it's recommended to turn on implicit All Group, i.e. to consider that all users are members of XWiki.XWikiAllGroup by default in the configuration. This is achieved by editing the ##xwiki.cfg## file and setting:
211
212 {{code language="none"}}
213 xwiki.authentication.group.allgroupimplicit=1
214 {{/code}}
215
216 Then you should remove all the XObjects from the XWikiAllGroup page but you should keep the page since otherwise you won't be able to set permissions for this group. This will prevent XWiki from having to load all that page's XObjects representing the users (thousands of them if you have thousands of users).
217
218 Also make sure that the ##XWikiAllGroup## is listed in the ##xwiki.users.initialGroups## property (it's there by default if you haven't touched that property):
219
220 {{code language="none"}}
221 #-# List of groups that a new user should be added to by default after registering. Comma-separated list of group
222 #-# document names.
223 # xwiki.users.initialGroups=XWiki.XWikiAllGroup
224 {{/code}}
225
226 = Robots.txt =
227
228 If your wiki is open on the Internet, it'll be crawled by search robots (like GoogleBot, etc). They will call all the URLs and especially the ones that are resource hungry like exports (PDF/RTF). You need to protect against this. To do so configure a ##robots.txt## file and put it in your webserver configuration.
229
230 Some example:
231
232 {{code language="none"}}
233 User-agent: *
234 # Prevent bots from executing all actions except "view" since:
235 # 1) we don't want bots to execute stuff in the wiki!
236 # 2) we don't want bots to consume CPU and memory
237 # (for example to perform exports)
238 # Note: You may want to allow /download/ if you wish to have
239 # attachments indexed.
240 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/viewattachrev/
241 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/viewrev/
242 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/pdf/
243 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/tex/
244 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/edit/
245 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/create/
246 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/inline/
247 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/preview/
248 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/save/
249 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/saveandcontinue/
250 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/rollback/
251 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/deleteversions/
252 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/cancel/
253 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/delete/
254 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/deletespace/
255 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/undelete/
256 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/reset/
257 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/register/
258 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/propupdate/
259 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/propadd/
260 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/propdisable/
261 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/propenable/
262 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/propdelete/
263 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/objectadd/
264 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/commentadd/
265 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/commentsave/
266 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/objectsync/
267 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/objectremove/
268 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/attach/
269 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/upload/
270 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/download/
271 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/temp/
272 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/downloadrev/
273 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/dot/
274 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/svg/
275 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/delattachment/
276 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/skin/
277 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/jsx/
278 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/ssx/
279 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/login/
280 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/loginsubmit/
281 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/loginerror/
282 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/logout/
283 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/charting/
284 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/lock/
285 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/redirect/
286 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/admin/
287 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/export/
288 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/import/
289 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/get/
290 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/distribution/
291 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/imagecaptcha/
292 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/unknown/
293 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/webjars/
294 # Don't index sandbox content since it's sample content
295 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/Sandbox/
296 # Don't index Admin space since it contains Admin stuff.
297 # Note that the Admin space is protected by permissions
298 # anyway but this acts as a safety net to not have private
299 # info leaked on the internet ;)
300 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/Admin/
301 # Don't index Stats data (just because it's not useful and
302 # those pages are a bit CPU intensive)
303 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/Stats/
304 # Don't index Panels data (because we don't want it
305 # indexed on the internet)
306 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/Panels/
307 {{/code}}
308
309 Other example:
310
311 {{code}}
312 [...]
313 # It could be also useful to block certain spaces from crawling,
314 # especially if this spaces doesn't provide new content
315 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/Main/
316 Disallow: /xwiki/bin/view/XWiki/
317 # On the other hand you would like to have your recent (public) changes included
318 Allow: /xwiki/bin/view/Main/Dashboard
319 {{/code}}
320
321 **Note:**
322
323 For Tomcat6 the placement of the ##robots.txt## file should be within the //$TOMCAT/webapps/ROOT// folder and should have permission 644 applied.
324
325 {{code}}
326 -rw-r--r-- 1 root www 1478 Jan 8 15:52 robots.txt
327 {{/code}}
328
329 In order to test if the ##robots.txt## file is either accessable or working as desired use this [[checker>>http://www.frobee.com/robots-txt-check]].
330
331 = Statistics =
332
333 {{info}}
334 This is no longer true starting with XE 1.4M2 since statistics are now put on a queue and written in a different thread in the database in one go, thus reducing the overhead to a maximum.
335 {{/info}}
336
337 The statistics module is off by default since it's quite database intensive. If you don't need it you should turn it off.
338 The current recommendation is to use the [[Matomo extension>>extensions:Extension.Piwiki Integration]] for statistics instead.
339
340 = Document Cache =
341
342 You can tune the Document cache in the ##xwiki.cfg## configuration file. The value depends on how much memory you have. The higher the better. A good reasonable value is 1000.
343
344 {{code language="none"}}
345 xwiki.store.cache.capacity=1000
346 {{/code}}
347
348 = Cache Macro =
349
350 It's possible to perform selective content caching by using the [[Cache Macro>>extensions:Extension.Cache Macro]].
351
352 = LESS CSS Performances =
353
354 [[LESS>>extensions:Extension.LESS Module]] is a preprocessor used to generate CSS files for skins and skin extensions. See the [[Performances section>>extensions:Extension.LESS Module#HPerformances]] of the LESS module documentation to learn more about how to optimize its cache for performances, and to set the appropriate number of simultaneous compilations your server can handle.
355
356 = Rendering cache =
357
358 Some pages are complex to render (they may aggregate outside data for example or do complex and slow queries). For theses pages you can use rendering cache.
359
360 == Configuration based ==
361
362 Pages can be cached (i.e. their rendered content cached) to speed up displaying. The configuration is done in ##xwiki.properties## with the following configuration options:
363
364 {{code language="none"}}
365 #-# [Since 2.4M1]
366 #-# Indicate if the rendering cache is enabled.
367 #-# Default value is false.
368 # core.renderingcache.enabled=true
369
370 #-# [Since 2.4M1]
371 #-# A list of Java regex patterns matching full documents reference.
372 # core.renderingcache.documents=wiki:Space\.Page
373 # core.renderingcache.documents=wiki:Space\..*
374
375 #-# [Since 2.4M1]
376 #-# The time (in seconds) after which data should be removed from the cache when not used.
377 #-# Default value is 300 (5 min).
378 # core.renderingcache.duration=300
379
380 #-# [Since 2.4M1]
381 #-# The size of the rendering cache. Not that it's not the number of cached documents but the number of cached results.
382 #-# (For a single document several cache entries are created, because each action, language and request query string
383 #-# produces a unique rendering result)
384 #-# Default value is 100.
385 # core.renderingcache.size=100
386 {{/code}}
387
388 You can force a page to refresh using ##refresh=1## in the URL.
389
390 Since 6.2 it's also possible to programmatically refresh any document cache using ##com.xpn.xwiki.internal.cache.rendering.RenderingCache## component:
391
392 {{code language="java"}}
393 @Inject
394 private RenderingCache renderingCache;
395
396 ...
397
398 renderingCache.flushWholeCache();
399 renderingCache.flushCache(new DocumentReference("xwiki", "MySpace", "MyCachedDocument"));
400 {{/code}}
401
402
403 = Merge the CSS files =
404
405 In order to reduce the number of requests and files that are downloaded from the browser or client, it could help to merge all XWiki CSS files into a single one. See the [[Merge CSS Script>>snippets:Extension.Merge CSS]].
406
407 = Set up NginX =
408
409 If you experience //__heavy loads__// on your wiki, you could try using NginX.
410
411 NginX is used to fetch static content: images, javascript, styles, etc, but it can also be used as a reverse-proxy to pass requests down to the web container (e.g. Tomcat on port 8080).
412
413 Unlike Apache, which instantiates a new process per every static file, NginX uses the same process to fetch all the static data, and thus gives you extra perfomance "for free".
414
415 For more info on setting up NginX check [[this guide>>Documentation.AdminGuide.Installation.NginX.WebHome]].
416
417 = Local resource access =
418
419 [[See URL API>>extensions:Extension.URL API#HResourcemodificationdate]].
420
421 = Backlinks =
422
423 While a pretty neat feature, keeping track of the backlinks has a medium impact on the document saving time and a minor impact on the document loading time. If you feel that your wiki does not need backlinks, you can safely disable them with the following line in ##xwiki.cfg##:
424
425 {{code language="none"}}
426 xwiki.backlinks=0
427 {{/code}}
428
429 = Versioning =
430
431 One of the key features of any wiki system, versioning greatly affects the database size and the document update time. If you are sure your wiki does not need to keep track of all the changes and you will never need to revert documents to a previous version, then you can add the following line in ##xwiki.cfg##:
432
433 {{code language="none"}}
434 xwiki.store.versioning=0
435 {{/code}}
436
437 = Custom Mapping =
438
439 In some cases you may not want to rely on XWiki's generic database schema for storing XClass data and instead you'd like to provide your own optimized table. For these use cases you can use [[Custom Mapping>>platform:DevGuide.CustomMapping]].
440
441 = LDAP =
442
443 == Disable LDAP sub groups search ==
444
445 By default when loading a LDAP group, each member is searched and loaded to figure out if it's a group or not (and then load the sub group members, etc). Since **7.2** If you know there is not sub group in your LDAP groups you can disable it and speed up quite a lot big groups handling using ##xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_sync_resolve_subgroups## property in ##xwiki.cfg## configuration file.
446
447 = Performance tree =
448
449 Since 7.1 it's possible to directly get a tree of time spent in each step of the request by using [[debug mode>>dev:Community.Debugging#HDebugmode]].
450
451 = Navigation Tree =
452
453 The Navigation Panel and other navigation trees can have some small performance issues under very high volumes. Here ares some base measures we did on some developer laptops to give you some ideas of the performance you should expect:
454
455 Measure set 1:
456
457 (% width="100%" class="table-bordered" %)
458 |=(% width="20%" %)DB|=(% width="10%" %)Levels|=(% width="10%" %)Spaces|=(% width="10%" %)Pages|=(% width="15%" %)Requests|=Time
459 |MySQL|5|6887|4049|31|180ms
460 |HSQLDB|5|6762|4063|27|138ms
461 |MySQL|1|2514|4962|27|331ms
462 |HSQLDB|1|2377|4718|21|**3.15s**
463
464 Measure set 2:
465
466 (% width="100%" class="table-bordered" %)
467 |=(% width="20%" %)DB|=(% width="10%" %)Levels|=(% width="10%" %)Spaces|=(% width="10%" %)Pages|=(% width="15%" %)Requests|=Time
468 |Oracle|5|6943|4106|20|119ms
469 |Oracle|1|2493|4982|20|153ms
470
471 Measure set 3:
472
473 (% width="100%" class="table-bordered" %)
474 |=(% width="20%" %)DB|=(% width="10%" %)Levels|=(% width="10%" %)Spaces|=(% width="10%" %)Pages|=(% width="15%" %)Requests|=Time
475 |Oracle|1|2485|4991|20|151ms
476 |PostgreSQL|1|2494|4991|20|125ms
477
478 Measure set 4 (XWiki 10.5, Intel i7 CPU, SSD Storage):
479
480 (% width="100%" class="table-bordered" %)
481 |=(% width="20%" %)DB|=(% width="10%" %)Levels|=(% width="10%" %)Spaces|=(% width="10%" %)Pages|=(% width="15%" %)Requests|=Time
482 |PostgreSQL 10|5|6847|4052|25|74ms
483
484 = Legacy =
485
486 == Monitor plugin ==
487
488 More a developer-oriented feature, XWiki can monitor its own code, reporting the time spent for each sub-component activated during a request. While the monitoring code isn't time consuming, it increases the memory consumption a bit, and the create/start/stop/log/destroy calls are spread all around the code, so you will save a lot of method calls by disabling this. You can do that by setting the following line in ##xwiki.cfg##:
489
490 {{code language="properties"}}
491 xwiki.monitor=0
492 {{/code}}
493
494 == 1.0 rendering cache using velocity in document content itself ==
495
496 You can add the following to their content to cache them after they are rendered. Note that the document is refreshed whenever the content of the document changes, and the cache takes into account the URL, so it is pretty safe to add a long cache duration for all documents that don't contain scripts gathering data from the wiki. For example to cache the rendered content for 60 seconds you would add:
497
498 {{code language="none"}}
499 $context.setCacheDuration(60)
500 {{/code}}
501
502 Since 1.5M2, you can set the default rendering cache duration for all pages in ##xwiki.cfg##:
503
504 {{code language="none"}}
505 ## cache all rendered documents for one hour
506 xwiki.rendering.defaultCacheDuration=3600
507 {{/code}}
508
509 Setting the default cache duration to a large value, and manually disabling the cache in dynamic pages would really speed up the wiki, since the rendering is one of the most time consuming processes.
510
511 == Wiki syntax features for XWiki Syntax 1.0 ==
512
513 If you're using XWiki Syntax 1.0 and if you don't plan to use all of the markup features, like the strikethrough filter, the automatic http links filter, the SVG, Laszlo or style macros, you can disable them in ##xwiki-core-*.jar/META-INF/services/com.xpn.xwiki.render.*##. The wiki rendering is the most costly operation in the rendering process, so any disabled feature counts.
514
515 Now this will have no effect if you're using another syntax, like XWiki Syntax 2.x.

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